ЗАГАЛЬНОСВІТОВІ ТЕНДЕНЦІЇ РОЗВИТКУ ГАЛУЗІ КОЗІВНИЦТВА ТА ОСНОВНІ ФАКТОРИ ФОРМУВАННЯ ЯКОСТІ КОЗЯЧОГО МОЛОКА
The aim of our study was to research of the current state of goat milk production in Ukraine and the world and outlined the main factors, including genetic, that determine its quality and, accordingly, the quality of cheese. It has been established that the general global trends in the development of goat breeding indicate the growing role of this field in the nutrition of the population. Thus, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), there is a steady increase in both the number and gross goat milk production. According to the research conducted from 2015 to 2019, the number of dairy goats in the world increased by 6.8 % – to more than 215 million heads. The stable growth of them took place in Europe (+ 30.0 %) and Africa (+ 10.3%). The largest number of dairy goats was kept in 2019 in Asia (50.8 %) and Africa (40.0 %). Gross production of goat milk in the world by 4.9 % from 2015 to 2019 increased. In Ukraine, the situation in dairy goat breeding is still significantly different from global trends – during the period under study, the number of goats decreased by 6.8 %, gross milk production decreased by 14.5 %. The analytical material has been presented as to the dependence of the chemical composition of goat milk on genotypic and paratypic factors, such as: breed, age, yean season, lactation stages, duration of dry period and pregnancy, feeding, housing conditions, influence of the environment (temperature, humidity), body weight and etc. It has been noted that European breeds of dairy goats tend to have much greater potential for milk production than the local breeds that have not undergone selection changes. At the same time, many indigenous breeds of goats have higher dry matter content in milk and are better adapted to local housing and feeding conditions, especially under climate change. The global demand on goat milk products is predicted to increase as consumers become more demanding as to the quality of animal products, which are important in the daily diet owing to the optimal content of macro- and micronutrients.